Sajdah-e-Sahw (Prostration of forgetfulness)   
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Sajdah-e-Sahw (Prostration of forgetfulness)

(1) Doing Sajdah-e-Sahw becomes wajib when any wajib act of Salaah is unintentionally omitted or if any wajib or fardh act is unintentionally delayed. (ad dur-ul-mukhtar ma' rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P655) (2) If Sajdah-e-Sahw is omitted despite having to do it then the whole Salaah must be repeated. (3) If a wajib is missed deliberately then Sajdah-e-Sahw is not sufficient. In fact the whole Salaah must be repeated. (4) If you miss something that is wajib but not one of the wajibaat of Salaah then Sajdah-e-Sahw does not need to be done, for example, reciting the Holy Qur'an in the wrong order is a sin (and to recite it in the proper order is wajib) but it is one of the wajibaat of reciting the Qur'an not one of the wajibaat of Salaah therefore Sajdah-e-Sahw is not needed (although you must still repent). (ibid) (5) Missing out a fardh invalidates the Salaah and Sajdah-e-Sahw does not make up for it. (6) Leaving out any Sunnah or desirable act like thana, ta'awwudh, tasmiyah, aameen, the takbeers said when changing positions and tasbihaat does not necessitate Sajdah-e-Sahw, (fathul Qadeer, V1, P438) but to pray it again is desirable, whether it was omitted deliberately or unintentionally. (7) Even if 10 wajibaat are omitted only 2 Sajdah-e-Sahw are enough. (rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P655) (8) If ta'deel-e-arkaan (e.g. standing up straight after ruku' and sitting straight in between 2 sujood for the duration of saying Subhan-Allah once) is unintentionally omitted then Sajdah-e-Sahw must be performed. (alamgiri, V1, P127) (9) Sajdah-e-Sahw is wajib if Dua-e-Qunoot or the Takbeer-e-Qunoot are omitted unintentionally. (alamgiri, V1, P128) (10) If you spend the duration of saying Subhan-Allah three times 'thinking' (and not doing anything) whether it be in qira'at or any other position, then Sajdah-e-Sahw is wajib. (rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P655) (11) Attahiyyat is wajib even after Sajdah-e-Sahw. In fact it is preferable to read Durood Shareef as well in both sittings (before and after Sajdah-e-Sahw). (alamgiri, V1, P125) (12) If the Imaam has to do Sajdah-e-Sahw then the congregate must follow him and do Sajdah-e-Sahw too (it is wajib for him as well). (ad dur-ul-mukhtar ma' rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P658) (13) If a congregate makes a mistake whilst he is behind the Imaam he does not need to do Sajdah-e-Sahw, (alamgiri, V1, P128) and he does not have to repeat the Salaah either.

Very important ruling

Many Islamic brothers ruin their Salaah due to unawareness of the following ruling so please read it very carefully; (14) A masbooq (one who comes late and misses one or more rak'aat behind the Imaam) is not allowed to say Salaam with the Imaam, if he does so deliberately he will invalidate his Salaah, if he says it unintentionally at exactly the same time as the Imaam then his Salaah will not be affected (but this is a very rare case), and if he says it unintentionally slightly after the Imaam he must stand up to complete his Salaah and then do Sajdah-e-Sahw himself at the end of his Salaah. (ad dur-ul-mukhtar ma'  rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P659) (15) A masbooq must do Sajdah-e-Sahw along with the Imaam even if the mistake he made was before he joined the congregation, if he does not do Sajdah-e-Sahw with the Imaam and stands to complete his Salaah then he must do it (the Sajdah-e-Sahw) at the end. If the masbooq makes a mistake himself whilst reading his missed rak'aat then the same Sajdah-e-Sahw will be sufficient. (alamgiri, V1, P128) (16) Sajdah-e-Sahw will become wajib even if the phrase is said after tashahhud in the first rak'at, this isn't because of reciting Durood Shareef, in fact it is due to the delay in standing for the 3rd rak'at. If one was to remain quiet for the same duration he would still have to do Sajdah-e-Sahw.

Incident

Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifa saw The Holy Prophet in a dream. The Holy Prophet asked him, 'Why have you decided that anyone who reads Durood Sharif has to do Sajdah-e-Sahw'? He replied, 'Because he read it in a state of negligence'. The Prophet liked this answer. (ad dur-ul-mukhtar ma' rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P657) (17) If any part of tashahhud is omitted in any of the sittings, Sajdah-e-Sahw must be done, whether the Salaah is nafl or fardh. (alamgiri, V1, P127)

 

8 Madani flowers regarding Sajdah-e-Tilawat

(1) Reciting or listening to a verse of sajdah makes Sajdah-e-Tilawat wajib. The recitation must be loud enough to hear the words yourself (if there is no noise). This sajdah will become wajib even if a person does not deliberately listen to the verse. (alamgiri, V1, P132) (2) Sajdah will become wajib even if the translation of the verse is recited, regardless of whether or not the listener understands it is the translation of a verse of sajdah. However, if he did not know then it is important that he be told that it was the translation of a verse of sajdah, but if the Arabic verse was recited, it is not necessary to tell the listener. (alamgiri, V1, P133) (3) Sajdah-e-Tilawat is only wajib when the whole verse is recited, however, according to some of the later scholars it will become wajib if every word containing the message of sajdah is recited along with a word either preceding it or following it, therefore, it is safer to do the sajdah in both cases. (mulakhkhasan fatawa-e-Razawiyyah, V8, P223-233, Raza Foundation Lahore) (4) If a verse of sajdah is recited whilst not being in a state of Salaah then to do the sajdah instantly is not wajib, however, if you have wudhu then delaying it is Makrooh-e-Tanzeehi. (tanweer-ul-absaar ma' rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P583) (5) To do the sajdah instantly in Salaah is wajib. If it is delayed (in other words, if more than three verses are recited after it) you have committed a sin, and therefore will have to do Sajdah-e-Sahw as well as Sajdah-e-Tilawat at the end (as long as you are in the Salaah or if you have finished the Salaah but have not yet done anything contradicting the Salaah). (ad dur-ul-mukhtar ma' rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P584)

Warning! Beware!

(6) In the blessed month of Ramadhan if a person is not taking part in the taraweeh or shabina (even if he is praying his own Salaah) he will still have to do Sajdah-e-Tilawat if he hears any verse of sajdah. Sajdah-e-Tilawat will be wajib even you hear a verse from a kafir or a child. If you have missed many Sujood of Tilawat since reaching the age of puberty then you must make a rough calculation of these and make up for them now.

Method of Sajdah-e-Tilawat

(7) Start by standing up and then as you say  (Allahu Akbar) go into sajdah and say at least three times, then say Allahu Akbar and stand up. To say Allahu Akbar before and after the sajdah is Sunnah and to stand before and after is desirable. (alamgiri, V1, P135) (8) The hands are not raised when saying Allahu Akbar in Sajdah-e-Tilawat nor does this sajdah contain tashahhud or salaam. (tanweer-ul-absaar ma' rad-dul-muhtar, V2, P580